Digital Literacy

Introduction to Evaluation

As a digitally literate citizen, you will want to have the skills to evaluate information. How do you know if the information you find is credible and reliable? Some universities suggest to use the CRAAP Test to evaluate sources. CRAAP is an acronym for "Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose." The CRAAP Test was developed by Sarah Blakeslee and a group of librarians at the California State University at Chico.

Helpful Resources



Infographic Transcript for What is CRAAP?
Currency- When was the information published or last updated? Relevance- What is the depth/coverage of info? Who is the intended audience? How well does the source answer your questions? Authority- Who wrote the information? What are their credentials? Are they affiliated with a company? A non-profit? A university? Look for a Contact Us or About Us page.  Accuracy- Are there any citations? Do the links work? Where are the links going? Can you verify the information elsewhere? Purpose- Does the website aim to teach? Inform? Sell? Entertain? Persuade? Is it .gov? .edu? .com?






Berkman, R. (2021). When Online Fact-Checking Is a Trap: The Weaponization of Media LiteracyOnline Searcher45(2), 10–13.

Brodsky, J. E., Zomberg, D., Powers, K. L., & Brooks, P. J. (2020). Assessing and fostering college students’ algorithm awareness across online contextsJournal of Media Literacy Education12(3), 43–57.

Elmwood, V. (2020). The Journalistic Approach: Evaluating Web Sources in an Age of Mass DisinformationCommunications in Information Literacy14(2), 269–286.

Hatlevik, I. K. R., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Students’ evaluation of digital information: The role teachers play and factors that influence variability in teacher behaviourComputers in Human Behavior83, 56–63.

Liu, G. (2021). Moving up the ladder of source assessment: Expanding the CRAAP test with critical thinking and metacognitionCollege & Research Libraries News82(2), 75–79.


How Library Stuff Works: How to Evaluate Resources (the CRAAP Test)

McMaster Libraries

Online Verification Skills — Video 1: Introductory Video

TED ED How statistics can be misleading - Mark Liddell

UNF Library How to Read a Scholarly Article