Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian

Citing Journal Articles

The basic format for an article from a journal requires the author’s name, the article title, the name of the journal, the date of the article, and the volume, issue number, and inclusive page numbers. Not all journals use issue numbers. APA recommends providing both volume and issue number if each issue of the journal paginates separately, that is, if each issue begins with page 1. Turabian suggests that more is better – if the journal provides both volume and issue numbers, include them both in the citation.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH VOLUME – ONE AUTHOR
The example used is an article by author Truly Learned, entitled “The Web-Toed Bibliosaurus: Cranial Measurements Indicate a Smarter Than Average Lizard,” published in volume 85 of the Journal of the Paleocranial Society in 1995 on pages 566-592. The journal does not paginate each issue separately, but numbers continuously over the entire volume.

APA

Learned, T. (1995). The Web-Toed Bibliosaurus: Cranial measurements indicate a smarter than average lizard. Journal of the Paleocranial Society, 85, 566-592.

MLA

Learned, Truly. “The Web-Toed Bibliosaurus: Cranial Measurements Indicate a Smarter than Average Lizard.” Journal of the Paleocranial Society, vol. 85, 1995, pp. 566-592.

TUR.

Learned, Truly. “The Web-Toed Bibliosaurus: Cranial Measurements Indicate a Smarter than Average Lizard.” Journal of the Paleocranial Society 85 (1995): 566-592.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH VOLUME & NUMBER – MULTIPLE AUTHORS
The example used is an article by authors Adam Bisantz and Bea Biserk entitled “Adaptivity and Genetic Predisposition to Temper Tantrums.” The article was published in 2000 in volume 35, issue number 3, of the journal Misbehavior and Medication on pages 34-48. Each issue of the journal has its own pagination beginning with page 1.

APA

Bisantz, A. & Biserk, B. (2000). Adaptivity and genetic predisposition to temper tantrums. Misbehavior and Medication, 35(3), 34-48.

MLA

Bisantz, Adam and Bea Biserk. “Adaptivity and Genetic Predisposition to Temper Tantrums.” Misbehavior and Medication, vol. 35, no. 3, 2000, pp. 34-48.

TUR.

Bisantz, Adam and Bea Biserk. “Adaptivity and Genetic Predisposition to Temper Tantrums.” Misbehavior and Medication 35, no. 3 (2000): 34-48.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH VOLUME & NUMBER – FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

The example used is an article authored by Otto Nomick, Rhea Flecks, Kaye Tschin, Nye Dzherk, and Nobbie Knease, entitled “Reaction Times in White Mice Which have Been Administered Large Doses of MSG.” The article was published in 1998 in volume 33, issue number 1, of the Journal of Reflexology & Reactivity, on pages 22-43. Each issue of the journal has its own pagination. APA requires listing all authors up to seven. For references with more than seven authors, give the first six authors, followed by an ellipsis, and followed by the last author. (Example: Adams, B., Brown, C., Cook, D., Davis, E., Edge, F., Francis, G., Green, H., ... Zabriskie, A. ) Turabian bibliography style calls for listing all the authors, regardless of how many.

APA

Nomick, O., Flecks, R., Tschin, K., Dzherk, N., & Knease, N. (1998). Reaction times in white mice which have been administered large doses of MSG. Journal of Reflexology & Reactivity, 33(1), 22-43.

MLA

Nomick, Otto, et al. “Reaction Times in White Mice Which Have Been Administered Large Doses of MSG.” Journal of Reflexology & Reactivity, vol. 33, no. 1, 1998, pp. 22-43.

TUR.

Nomick, Otto, Rhea Flecks, Kaye Tschin, Nye Dzherk, and Nobbie Knease. “Reaction Times in White Mice Which Have Been Administered Large Doses of MSG.” Journal of Reflexology & Reactivity 33, no. 1 (1998): 22-43.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE – ELECTRONICALLY PUBLISHED JOURNAL (No DOI listed)
This example is based on an article published in an online journal. The article, written by author C.B. Cybernaught, is entitled “Hyper Over Hypertext” and was published online in volume 39, issue number 4, April 1995, in the electronic journal World Wide Wanderer. The article is not paginated and was retrieved on 25 May 2008.

APA

Cybernaught, C.B. (1995, April). Hyper over hypertext. World Wide Wanderer, 39(4). http://www.ccu.edu/wwwander/

MLA

Cybernaught, C.B. “Hyper Over Hypertext.” World Wide Wanderer, vol. 39, no. 4, April 1995, www.ccu.edu/wwwander/april95.html. Accessed 25 May 2008.

TUR.

Cybernaught, C.B. “Hyper Over Hypertext.” World Wide Wanderer 39, no. 4 (April 1995). http://www.ccu.edu/wwwander/april95.html (accessed May 25, 2008).

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE – ELECTRONICALLY PUBLISHED JOURNAL (DOI listed)
This example is based on an article published in an online journal that assigns DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) to each of its articles. Most publishers are now assigning DOIs to make it easier to link back to electronically published articles. The article, written by author Cosette Cremedelacreme, is entitled “An Examination of Gastronomic Imagery in the Later Poetry of Fifi LaRue. The article was published in 2008 in volume 13, issue number 2, on pages 23-43 of the journal Poetry Parisienne. The URL for the article is http://www.parisienne.com/13_2/cremedelacreme.html. The DOI for the article is 29.1027/00013- 2893.13.2.23. The article was retrieved June 13, 2008. Note: APA recommends using both volume and issue numbers for all electronic journal articles when both are available, regardless of pagination.

APA

Cremedelacreme, C. (2008). An examination of gastronomic imagery in the later poetry of Fifi LaRue. Poetry Parisienne, 13(2), 23-43. https://doi.org/29.1027/00013-2893.13.2.23

MLA

Cremedelacreme, Cosette. “An Examination of Gastronomic Imagery in the Later Poetry of Fifi LaRue.” Poetry Parisienne, vol. 13, no. 2, 2008, pp. 23-43. doi: 29.1027/00013- 2893.13.2.23. Accessed 13 June 2008.

TUR.

Cremedelacreme, Cosette. “An Examination of Gastronomic Imagery in the Later Poetry of Fifi LaRue.” Poetry Parisienne 13, no. 2 (2008): 23-43. doi:29.1027/00013- 2893.13.2.23 (accessed June 13, 2008).

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE FULL-TEXT DATABASE (No DOI or Journal URL listed)
The example is based on the 2007 article “Entanglements in Wonderland: Children’s Stories and Their Underlying Adult Themes,” by author Silvester Stiltskin. The article was published in the journal Studies in Children’s Fiction in the March 2007 issue, volume 37, number 3, on pages 123-145. The journal has no online equivalent but it has been reproduced electronically in Literature Online. The database is available at the Thomas G. Carpenter Library at UNF and was retrieved on August 28, 2008. Note: APA advises that it is generally not necessary to provide retrieval information for journal articles pulled from databases, since coverage in the database might change. When no DOI or website is available, the citation will take the format of the print journal article.

APA

Stiltskin, S. (2007). Entanglements in Wonderland: Children’s stories and their underlying adult themes. Studies in Children’s Fiction, 37(3), 123-145.

MLA

Stiltskin, Sylvester. “Entanglements in Wonderland: Children’s Stories and Their Underlying Adult Themes.” Studies in Children’s Fiction, vol. 37, no. 3, 2007, pp. 123-145. Literature Online, gateway.lion.com/scf/2007_37_03_stiltskin.html. Accessed 28 Aug. 2008.

TUR.

Stiltskin, Sylvester. “Entanglements in Wonderland: Children’s Stories and Their Underlying Adult Themes.” Studies in Children’s Fiction 37, no. 3 (2007): 123-145. http://gateway.lion.com/scf/2007_37_03_stiltskin.html (Accessed August 28, 2008).

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE FULL-TEXT DATABASE (Journal URL listed)
The example is based on the 2006 article authored by Rubio Buttons entitled “Send in the Clowns: Political Misadventures of 21st Century America.”  The article was published in volume 3, issue number 2, of the journal Political Profundity on pages 47-62. The journal also maintains electronic copies of the articles and provides the URL on the article title page (http://www.polprof.com/2006/buttons.html). The article is available in the database PoliSci Online and was retrieved from the database on September 3, 2008.

APA

Buttons, R. (2006). Send in the clowns: Political misadventures of 21st century America. Political Profundity, 3(2), 47-62. http://www.polprof.com/

MLA

Buttons, Rubio. “Send in the Clowns: Political Misadventures of 21st Century America.” Political Profundity, vol. 3, no. 2, 2006, pp. 47-62. PoliSci Online, http://text.poliscionline.com/2006_3_2_47.html. Accessed 3 Sep. 2008.

TUR.

Buttons, Rubio. “Send in the Clowns: Political Misadventures of 21st Century America.” Political Profundity 3, no. 2 (2006): 47-62. http://text.poliscionline.com/2006_3_2_47.html (accessed September 3, 2008).

 

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