Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian

This guide covers standard citations for APA, MLA, and Turabian styles.

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Introduction to Citation Styles

The examples included in this guide are based on the current editions of the APA, MLA, and Turabian style manuals. This quick reference guide is not intended to replace or to be a substitute for the official style manuals, databases, or official resources listed below.

 

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Formatting Notes

• Use a “hanging indent” to show the beginning of a citation. In other words, the first line of the citation begins at the left margin. Subsequent lines are indented ½ inch from the left margin (typically 5 spaces).
• Double-space all entries in the reference list for APA and MLA. Turabian uses single spacing.
• APA, MLA, and Turabian use italicized type to indicate titles of major works (book titles, journal titles, etc.).
• Turabian examples given are for the bibliography, not for the notes. Refer to the full style manual for more help on notes and parenthetical references.