Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian

Citing Other Materials

The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name. 

 

OTHER PRINT AND NON-PRINT FORMATS
For other types of materials used in the preparation of a manuscript or research paper, follow the spirit of the documentation requirements demonstrated above. Always try to identify authorship, whether the author is a single individual, multiple individuals, or a corporate body. Always carefully document the title of the publication, whether it is in print or online. And always try to identify the publishing information, which normally will include the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication. The amount of information available will vary depending on the type of publication and the means of publication.

 

COMPANY ANNUAL REPORT
The example is based on the annual report from the company Shockrock Enterprises, an entertainment firm based in Rockland, Vermont. The report was printed by the company in 2008. The company, itself, is the author of the report. No individual authors are cited.

APA

Shockrock Enterprises. (2008). 2008 annual report. Rockland, VT: Author.

MLA

Shockrock Enterprises. 2008 Annual Report. Shockrock Enterprises, 2008.

TUR.

Shockrock Enterprises. 2008 Annual Report. Rockland, VT: Shockrock Enterprises, 2008.

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE – AUTHOR GIVEN
The example is based on an article published in volume 26 of the 2008 edition of the Encyclopedia Trivianna by the author Leroi Faunt. The article dealt with the topic royalty and appeared on pages 501- 508 of the encyclopedia.

APA

Faunt, L. (2008). Royalty. In Encyclopedia trivianna. (Vol 26, pp. 501-508). London: Encyclopedia Trivianna.

MLA

Faunt, Leroi. “Royalty.” Encyclopedia Trivianna. 2008 ed.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing encyclopedia articles only in the notes.

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE ONLINE – AUTHOR GIVEN
The example is based on the same article listed in the foregoing example except that it comes from the online version of the encyclopedia. The article was retrieved on August 18, 2008, from the encyclopedia’s website.

APA

Faunt, L. (2008). Royalty. In Encyclopedia trivianna online. Retrieved from http://www.triviannaonline.com

MLA

Faunt, Leroi. “Royalty.” Encyclopedia Trivianna Online. Encyclopedia Triviana, www.triviannaonline.com. Accessed 18 August 2008.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing encyclopedia articles only in the notes.

 

ERIC DOCUMENT

Papers filed with the ERIC system (Educational Resources Information Center) are referenced much like books. Required information includes author’s name, title, date, place of production, sponsoring institution, and date. Additionally, include the ERIC Document Reproduction service number (ED number). The example is a paper filed with ERIC entitled Mon Ma, Son Sa, Ton Ta: Accelerating French Learning in the Classroom. It was authored by Pierre Poupon and was produced in 1999 under the auspices of the LaPlume Institute in Paris, France.

APA

Poupon, P. (1999). Mon ma, son sa, ton ta: Accelerating French Learning in the classroom. Paris: LaPlume Institute. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED999333)

MLA

Poupon, Pierre. Mon Ma, Son Sa, Ton Ta: Accelerating French Learning in the Classroom. LaPlume Institute, 1999. Microfiche. ERIC. ED 999 333.

TUR.

Poupon, Pierre. Mon Ma, Son Sa, Ton Ta: Accelerating French Learning in the Classroom. Paris: LaPlume Institute, 1999. ERIC Document Reproduction Service. Document number ED999333. Microfiche.

 

INTERVIEW, UNPUBLISHED
The example is based on a telephone interview conducted with writer Chantilly Lace on February 27, 2008.

APA

APA recommends citing interviews only in the body of the paper rather than in the reference list. This applies also to letters, memos, telephone conversations, and other similar communications. Use either of the following formats in the body of the paper: C. Lace (personal communication, February 27, 2008.) (C. Lace, personal communication, February 27, 2008)

MLA

Lace, Chantilly. Telephone interview. 27 Feb. 2008.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing published interviews only in the notes unless a particular interview is critical to an argument being made.

 

INTERVIEW, PUBLISHED
The example is based on an interview with sociologist Elian Nayzhun that was published in the magazine Magnetic Personalities: the Magazine of Popular Culture on pages 25-35 of the October 23, 2007, issue. The interview was entitled “Where I’m From: an Interview with Elian Nayzhun.” Treat interviews no differently than articles from newspapers, magazines, and journals. If clarification is needed in the APA reference, follow the title of the interview with a bracketed description (Example: [Interview]). If it is important to reference the person conducting the interview in the research, the interviewer can be listed as well.

APA

Nayzhun, E. (2007, October 23). Where I’m from: An interview with Elian Nayzhun. Magnetic Personalities: the Magazine of Popular Culture, 25-35.

MLA

Nayzhun, Elian. “Where I’m From: an Interview with Elian Nayzhun.” Magnetic Personalities: the Magazine of Popular Culture, 23 October 2007, pp. 25-35.

TUR.

Nayzhun, Elian. “Where I’m From: an Interview with Elian Nayzhun.” Magnetic Personalities: the Magazine of Popular Culture, October 23, 2007.

 

LAW CASE – PRINT
Recommendation: Court cases are typically referenced according to the Standard System of American Legal Citation style. Citations typically reference the parties in a case, the volume, abbreviation, and page reference for the legal reporter where the case was reported, the date of the case, and, in some instances, parallel citations to the case. The standard reference for determining correct formats and abbreviations is the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, published by the Harvard Law Review Association. The example is based on a case reported in the Federal Reporter, 2d series, at page 442. The case was between Paul H. Robinson and the State of New Jersey and was decided in 1986.

APA

Robinson v. New Jersey, 806 F.2d 442 (1986).

MLA

Robinson v. New Jersey, 806 F.2d 442, 1986.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing cases only in the notes.

 

LAW CASE – FROM A FULL-TEXT ONLINE SERVICE
The example is based on the same case referenced in the foregoing example. In this instance, the case was retrieved from the online database WorldLaw Essential Cases on December 15, 2007.

APA

Robinson v. New Jersey, 806 F.2d 442 (1986). Retrieved December 15, 2007, from the WorldLaw Essential Cases database.

MLA

Robinson v. New Jersey, 806 F.2d 442, 1986. WorldLaw Essential Cases. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing cases only in the notes.

 

SOUND RECORDING
The example is based on the song entitled “Pavlov’s Child,” recorded by the group Canis Connection on their 2006 album A Nip Is Better Than a Bite. The album was produced in Labrador City, Newfoundland, by HoundSound Records.

APA

Canis Connection. (2003). Pavlov’s child. On A Nip Is Better Than a Bite [CD]. Labrador City, Newfoundland: HoundSound.

MLA

Cannis Connection. “Pavlov’s Child.” A Nip Is Better Than a Bite. HoundSound, 2003.

TUR.

Cannis Connection. “Pavolov’s Child.” A Nip Is Better Than a Bite. HoundSound. CD. 2003.

 

TELEVISION PROGRAM
The example is based on a television show entitled Purrrfectly Wild, which was produced by Felix LeChat and broadcast on New York’s Felis Broadcasting Service on September 25, 2007.

APA

LeChat, F. (Executive Producer). (1999, September 25, 2007). Purrrfectly Wild [Television broadcast]. New York: Felis Broadcasting Service.

MLA

Purrrfectly Wild. Prod. Felix LeChat. Felis Broadcasting Service, New York. 25 Sept. 2007.

TUR.

Turabian recommends citing television and radio programs only in the notes.

 

VIDEO RECORDING
The example is based on a DVD recording of the 2001 documentary Nothing to Crow About: Chicken Exploitation in America. The documentary was directed by Foghorn Leghorn, produced by Elmer Fudd, and released by Looney Productions in 2006. Limited in availability, it can be ordered directly from Looney at 12 Egg Drive, Suite 12, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

APA

Fudd, E. (Producer) & Leghorn, F. (Director). (2006). Nothing to crow about: Chicken exploitation in America [Motion Picture]. (Available from Looney Productions, 12 Egg Drive, Suite 12, Albuquerque, NM)

MLA

Nothing to Crow About: Chicken Exploitation in America. Dir. Foghorn Leghorn. Prod. Elmer Fudd. 2001. Looney Productions, 2006.

TUR.

Nothing to Crow About: Chicken Exploitation in America. DVD. Directed by Foghorn Leghorn. Produced by Elmer Fudd. Albuquerque, NM: Looney Productions, 2006.

 

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